Academic References

Banks, J. and Humphreys, S. (2008) The Labour of User Co-Creators: Emergent Social Network Markets?, Convergence, 14(4), pp. 401–418. doi: 10.1177/1354856508094660. (Accessed 03/01/2019)

Benkler, Y (2006) The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom Yale: Yale University Press

Booth, P (2010) Digital Fandom: New Media Studies New York: Peter Lang Publishing

Brookey, R.A and Canon, K.L (2009) Sex Lives in Second Life Critical Studies in Media Communication Vol. 26, No. 2, June 2009, pp. 145-164

Bruns, A (2008) Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life and Beyond New York: Peter Lang Publishing

Burgess, J and Green, J (2009) YouTube: Online Video and Participatory Culture Cambridge: Polity Press

Consalvo, M (2003) It’s a Queer World After All: Studying The Sims and Sexuality GLAAD Centre for the Study of Media and Society Accessed From:

Jenkins, H (1992) Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture New York: Routledge.

Keen, A (2008) The Cult of the Amateur: How Blogs, MySpace, YouTube and the rest of today’s user-generated Media are killing our culture and economy (Revised Ed) London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing

Kücklich, J (2005) Precarious Playbour: Modders and the Digital Games Industry. Fibreculture Journal, 01 January 2005, Issue 5 Accessed From: (Accessed 09/01/2019)

Laukkanen, T (2005) Modding scenes. Introduction to User created content computer gaming.  University of Tampere Hypermedia Laboratory (Accessed 05/01/2019)

Postigo, H. (2007) Of Mods and Modders: Chasing Down the Value of Fan-Based Digital Game Modifications. Games and Culture, 2(4), pp. 300–313. (Accessed 05/01/2019)

Salen, K and Zimmerman, E (2004) Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals London: MIT Press

Sihovnen, T (2010) Players Unleashed!: Modding The Sims and the Culture of Gaming. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Sotamaa , O (2010) When the Game Is Not Enough: Motivations and Practices Among Computer Game Modding Culture Games and Culture 5(3) pp239-255 Available From: (Accessed 09/01/2019)

Terranova, T (2000) Free Labor: Producing Culture for the Digital Economy. Social Text, 18(2), pp.33–58. Available From: (Accessed 09/01/2019)

Wirman, H. (2014) Playing by Doing and Players’ Localization of The Sims 2. Television & New Media, 15(1), pp. 58–67. (Accessed 05/01/2019)


Web References

‘Boolprop’ (Sims general chat forum) Available From: (Accessed: 09/01/2019)

‘Ko-Fi’ (Get Paid by People Who Love Your Work) From: (Accessed: 10/01/2019)

Maxis, (2016) The Sims 4 Expands Gender Customisation Options Available From: (Accessed: 15/01/2019)

‘Patreon’ (“Membership allows all creators like you to have a direct relationship with your biggest fans, get recurring revenue for your work, and create on your own terms.”) From: (Accessed 10/01/2019)

Peel, J (2018) How much it costs to buy The Sims 4 and all the DLCs Available From: (Accessed: 09/01/2019)

Pinstar (2014) Legacy Challenge Available From: (Alternate link: (Accessed: 09/01/2019)

Rhinewald, S and McElrath-Hart, N (2016) 2016 World Video Game Hall of Fame Inductees Announced: Grand Theft Auto III, The Legend of Zelda, The Oregon Trail, The Sims, Sonic the Hedgehog, and Space Invaders. Available From: (Accessed: 05/01/2019)

‘The Sims Resource’ (The world’s largest and oldest The Sims fansite established in 1999) Available From: (Accessed: 09/01/2019)

SimGuru Graham (2017) Your vote counts! Help us choose a new stuff pack for The Sims 4 Available From: (Accessed 10/01/2019)




Game References

Second Life 2003-Present, PC [Online Multiplayer Game] Linden Lab: San Francisco, California

The Sims (Base Game Only) 2000, PC [Game] Electronic Arts: Redwood City, California

The Sims 2 (Base Game Only) 2004, PC [Game] Electronic Arts: Redwood City, California

The Sims 3 (Base Game Only) 2009, PC [Game] Electronic Arts: Redwood City, California

The Sims 4 (Base Game Only) 2013, PC [Game] Electronic Arts: Redwood City, California




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